New Frontiers in Science

New Frontiers in Science is an online journal that examines unexplained and controversial scientific phenomena. NFS publishes research and theories outside currently accepted scientific paradigms. In our first issue, NFS examines the infamous 'face' on Mars.

Vol. 1, No. 1 (Fall 2001): Analysis of MGS images of the 'face' on Mars

Overview of the controversy surrounding the Face and other anomalous features in the Cydonia region of Mars:  The Face on Mars: Evidence of Extraterrestrial Intelligence? by Mac Tonnies.

Brief history and background on the Face:  Face on Mars FAQS.

Symmetry and Geometry of the Face on Mars Revealed

A New Analysis Based on the April 2001 Image

Mark J. Carlotto

Orthorectified image of the Face on Mars On April 8, 2001 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was able for the first time to obtain a fully illuminated high resolution image of the Face on Mars. Like previous MGS images the Face appears at first glance to be a highly eroded natural formation. However analysis of this new image shows the object to possess a very high degree of symmetry in two directions. Using repeatable geometrical constructions based on clearly resolved features the Face appears to fit a consistently expressed geometrical model based on rectangles having a long to short side ratio of 4/3, i.e., by rectangles diagonally bisected by 3-4-5 right triangles. Analysis of the new image reveals that the right (east) side of the Face is covered with sand. The depth of the sand appears to be sufficient to have covered over some of the detail on the east side and may account for its apparent lack of facial symmetry.

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Review of "Symmetry and Geometry of the Face on Mars Revealed" by Mark Carlotto

Horace W. Crater

The aim of this review is to determine, using methods of analytical geometry, how many of the elementary symmetries identified by Carlotto are independent, to what extent these symmetries, if exact, are actually compatible with one another, and whether the consistency of these measurements supports an artificial origin for the Face on Mars mesa.

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Identification of the Mars Global Surveyor MOLA Profile of the Face on Mars

Lan Fleming

The release of the April 2001 image of the Face on Mars was accompanied by the simultaneous posting of an article on an official NASA web site. The article's intent was apparently to render a definitive scientific conclusion that the Face is an unremarkable hill or mesa. Fleming, however, shows that the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data on which NASA's analysis was based is not that of the Face. After locating the correct MOLA height map he shows that it is actually consistent with Carlotto's previous estimates of the height and shape of the Face.

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Face on Mars: High Resolution and Animated Content

Mark J. Carlotto

Provides additional data supporting the analysis of April 2001 Image of the Face on Mars. Includes comparison of Viking and MGS-derived digital elevation models, raw and orthorectified MGS images, orthorectified and flipped MGS images to show points of symmetry, and perspective views from around the formation that show a layer of sand covering the right side of the Face.

High resolution content

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